Smoke City Salt Lake Metropolis
Regardless of how the race goes although, I savor the ultimate moments with my team as we gradual back to a stroll on the monitor runout sooner than heading again to the beginning space to return our tools. The foundation of the staff is our horse, and my cowgirl and I shower gratitude on our sturdy, silent, 4-legged companion who makes the magic possible.
American Legion, the nation’s largest army veterans organization, handed a decision at their September 2016 annual conference calling on Congress to remove hashish from the listing of Schedule I medication. In December 2016, the group lobbied the incoming Trump administration to reclassify hashish as a Schedule III drug. Critics of the NIDA monopoly have pointed to the case of University of Massachusetts Amherst professor Lyle Craker for example of the DEA’s undue resistance to granting extra cultivation licenses. Professor Craker’s endeavor to amass a license began in June 2001, when he submitted an utility to the DEA, which, later in 2001, the DEA claimed to have misplaced. After a photocopy was resubmitted, the DEA rejected the applying in February 2002 as a result of it didn’t have an genuine signature.
The software program was then resubmitted in August 2002, upon which the DEA confirmed receipt. On July 24, 2003, a discover concerning Craker’s software was filed inside the Federal Register, with a public comment interval ending on September 23, 2003. Senators John Kerry and Ted Kennedy wrote a letter to DEA Administrator Karen Tandy expressing help for granting Professor Craker a license.
Utah’s Premier Smoke Store
The development fell out of use all through the 1910s because of the proliferation of vehicles and was supplied. This city takes satisfaction in its many celebrations and occasions, a few of which embody creating huge Jell-O sculptures, an Elvis Extravaganza, paintings exhibits, and a lot further. This metropolis provides climbing, sizzling air balloon excursions, spa retreats, and extra as soon as the climate warms up. Park City, UtahPark City is the center of Utah’s winter wonderland with unimaginable mountains, world-class ski resorts, and 12 months-spherical events.
All nonetheless two of the sufferers have since died; the surviving two sufferers are the one individuals who presently acquire cannabis by way of this method. There can also be no timeline during which NIDA is required to answer to proposals , which has resulted in delays in getting research permitted ranging from months to years. Additionally, the cannabis provided by NIDA has been criticized as being inferior to that which is commonly utilized by medical hashish patients in states the place it’s authorized. Criticisms of NIDA-outfitted cannabis embrace excessive quantities of stems and seeds, high mildew and yeast ranges, low THC content material, and low number of strains obtainable. Also in 1996, sixty five% of Arizona voters approved Proposition 200, a drug coverage reform initiative containing a provision permitting physicians to prescribe cannabis. The medical use provision was then basically repealed by state legislators a number of months later, nevertheless the change was rejected by voters in a 1998 veto referendum.
Despite an official coverage denying the medical worth of hashish, the federal authorities started offering the drug to a limited number of victims via the Compassionate Investigational New Drug program in 1978. The bills towards Randall have been dismissed, and because of an ensuing petition filed with the FDA, Randall grew to become the first individual to acquire cannabis from the federal government in 1976. After his present was reduce off in 1978, he filed a lawsuit to have it restored, setting in movement the creation of the Compassionate Investigational New Drug program shortly thereafter. The creation of the hypodermic syringe also allowed these medication to be injected for fast impact, in contrast to hashish which is not water-soluble and subsequently can’t be injected. Additionally, as fears relating to the leisure use of hashish began to take maintain , states started passing laws to limit the sale and possession of hashish, eliminating its availability as an over-the-counter drug.
The fireplace with one of the best toll of smokejumper deaths was the Mann Gulch fireplace in 1949, which occurred north of Helena, Montana, on the Gates of the Mountains space along the Missouri River. This catastrophe instantly led to the institution of latest security necessities utilized by all wildland firefighters. Most smokejumpers of the era weren’t career professionals, but seasonal workers lured by the prospect of incomes as a lot as $1,000 over a summer season. Chop remaining onion, slice whole jalapenos into thirds and add with all other components. This will cook dinner dinner dankstop titanium quartz stone pipe for numerous extra hours on low warmth. When beans are prepared, saute onion, garlic, inexperienced chiles and tomatoes in oil in a big soup pot or Dutch oven over medium-excessive heat.
Discover On-line Headshops
Clinical analysis on cannabis additionally requires the approval of the National Institute on Drug Abuse. Today, on-line head retailers have furthermore flip into prevalent; there are tons of of head shops eager to promote their products on-line. The legality of the retailers was talked about in the Seanad Éireann, and a movement was handed requesting the Government to manage the sale of merchandise. Some politicians had been in favour of outlawing the shops whereas others argued that prohibiting the purchases of legal intoxicants could be a “big mistake” which might permit illegal road sellers to thrive. American head retailers originated inside the 1960s in cities with excessive concentrations of college-age youth, typically rising out of independently owned poster or candle shops. There are additionally bigger circumstances of respiratory an an infection related to smoke publicity, although any connection to microbes in smoke just isn’t confirmed. Now that everybody is aware of that smoke is alive, or quite, accommodates life, there’s essential work to do, acknowledged Leda Kobziar, a hearth ecologist on the University of Idaho, and one of many lead figures in pyroaerobiology.
The distinctive Statehouse developing is the oldest authorities property in Utah and has been turned into a museum. Today, Fillmore is well known for being a historic city that prides itself in preserving old construction and offering glorious hospitality. Nestled between these unimaginable landscapes are nice small cities that make the perfect base to really get away from it all and presents a true fashion of the nice American West.
People Of One Cease Smoke Shop
Once my horse leaves the beginning corral at a gallop, I am yanked to full speed in a nanosecond–zero to sixty, like I live most of my life. Bases are likely to search for extremely motivated individuals who’re in superior type and have the power to assume independently and react to altering environments rapidly. Many smokejumpers have earlier expertise as hotshots, who present a strong basis of wildland firefighting experience and bodily conditioning. The fireplace with the most effective toll of smokejumper deaths was the Mann Gulch hearth in 1949, which occurred north of Helena, Montana, on the Gates of the Mountains space alongside the Missouri River. This catastrophe immediately led to the institution of current security necessities utilized by all wildland firefighters.
Many individuals circled and settled in Yuma – the origin of the neighborhood nonetheless known as “Okietown”. You can learn extra in regards to the project – and see water effervescent up through the Siphon – on the Yuma Quartermaster Depot State Historic Park. Typical of Arizona’s atypical improvement, the railroad line was built from west to east starting in Yuma, reaching Tucson in 1880. This finally ashcatchers turned the principle line of the Southern Pacific, certainly one of many great coast-to-coast railroads of the interval. As we technique the end line, I do irrespective of I can–fiercely pulling myself up the rope or skating aggressively–to interrupt the beam of the timer as shortly as attainable.
The use of CBD to take care of seizure problems gained elevated consideration with a number of media tales in 2012 and 2013, and by the tip of 2015 sixteen states had “low-THC, excessive-CBD” laws in effect. These authorized tips differ in THC content materials allowed all the way in which by which up to 5% in some states . Federal enforcement efforts in the direction of medical cannabis had been additional escalated in early 2011, as a campaign of coercing state and native governments was initiated by the Justice Department. Attorneys to a number of state and metropolis officers, threatening to criminally prosecute these people if the implementation of newest medical cannabis laws moved forward.
A head store is a retail outlet specializing in paraphernalia used for consumption of cannabis and tobacco and gadgets associated to cannabis custom and associated countercultures. A head retailer, typically generally called a “smoke store” is a retail store that focuses on products for smoking tobacco, hashish, and completely different tools on this counterculture. Many head retailers additionally carry Kratom, CBD, and other consumables – relying on the legality inside their state. Smoke Shops have been round for a few years, and are well-favored destinations for stoners and the smoking lovers to look dankstop fumed glass shade accented chillums 1 out merchandise to fit their way of life.
If vacationers couldn’t current that that they had money of their pockets or a agency job in California, they weren’t permitted to cross the river. Regardless of how the race goes although, I savor the final moments with my employees as we gradual once more to a stroll on the observe runout before heading again to the beginning area to return our instruments. The foundation of the group is our horse, and my cowgirl and I bathe gratitude on our sturdy, silent, four-legged companion who makes the magic potential. Once my horse leaves the beginning corral at a gallop, I am yanked to full tempo in a nanosecond–zero to sixty, like I reside most of my life. As in a lot of cities, Yuma’s development in newest a few years shifted away from the historic downtown. The creation of a “pedestrian mall” on Main Street within the Nineteen Sixties didn’t staunch the exodus of retail institutions, and the city largely turned its back on the historic riverfront. Stripped of their native forests and starved of seasonal flooding, the banks of the Colorado were overgrown with non-native vegetation and sometimes occupied by transients.
Some head outlets also sell oddities, such as vintage strolling sticks and intercourse toys. Since the 1980s, some head retailers have provided clothes related to the heavy metal or punk subculture, similar to band T-shirts and material patches with band logos, studded wristbands, bullet belts, and leather boots.
That video reveals Burge at a enterprise, sporting the same garments and driving a automobile that matches the suspect automotive. West Valley City is residence to 2 smoke shops, and many individuals usually shop for bongs, vaporizers, and dab rigs. In addition, customers can often discover hemp oil, butane, CBD, and extra at native shops. West Valley is residence to 5 smoke outlets, and many people normally store for bongs, vaporizers, and dab rigs. A months-old man has been arrested for allegedly shoplifting from a West Jordan retailer after which repeatedly — and deliberately — operating over a retailer clerk who confronted him in the parking zone.
Head Retailers Inside 50 Miles Of West Valley
Visit our wonderful staff in either Taylorsville or Murray to see why iVape won City Weekly’s Best of Utah three years in a row. Whether you can have a non-working hearth or you must keep away from smoke, there are nonetheless loads of strategies to delicate up your fireplace. Take a tour of this renovated Victorian house from 1878 that’s the brand new epicenter of Faust wines. 9000 South, tried to stop a person who had stolen one thing from the store, primarily based on West Jordan police. Moab is known for its unbelievable pink sandstone arch, in Arches National Park, a geological feat that took nature 1000’s of years to carve.
If you’ve eaten a variety of bites too many, you in all probability can undo the injury on the native pool or at Crawdad Canyon, a mountaineering park. Visitors may even spend the night time in Crawdad Canyon, a protected resort the place you presumably can prepare dinner, climb, and camp. 9000 South, tried to stop an individual who had stolen something from the store, based mostly on West Jordan police. One petrol bomb assault occurred within the residence county of the then Minister for Justice, Dermot Ahern, and hours later, plans for legislation for regulation of head retailers obtained underway. The outlets’ recognition in the end waned with the getting older of that era’s youngster boomer technology, in addition to a 1973 U.S. Spring City, UtahSpringtown is the gateway to Zion National Park, a ought to-see vacation spot for any buyer coming by the use of Utah.
Occupying an entire metropolis block, the location empire glassworks pleased ft penguin bowl options charming gardens and an oval reflecting pool on the east aspect and an enormous grassy hill on the west. The legality of cannabis varies broadly inside the United States, but in states the place medical hashish is legal, cannabis dispensaries sometimes double as head retailers. That video displays Burge at a enterprise, sporting the identical garments and driving a car that matches the suspect car. West Valley City is home to 2 smoke retailers, and plenty of people usually retailer for bongs, vaporizers, and dab rigs. In addition, prospects can usually find hemp oil, butane, CBD, and more at native retailers.
The newly renamed metropolis gained considered considered one of its lasting claims to fame in 1876, when the Yuma Territorial Prison opened on the dual hill throughout from the fort. Army decided that the best method to offer new forts inside the lands taken from Mexico was to deliver provides by sea, then up the river to Yuma. Seven are operated by the United States Forest Service , and two are operated by the Bureau of Land Management . In May 1978, members of the Army National Guard’s 19th Special Forces Group and different western army models briefly began airborne teaching on the Missoula Smokejumper School. Although in years previous, the navy had conducted primary airborne coaching at diversified places, it has since been consolidated at Fort Benning, Georgia. After observing smokejumper coaching strategies at Seeley Lake in June 1940, then-Major William C. Lee of the U.S.
Occupying a whole metropolis block, the state of affairs empire glassworks joyful ft penguin bowl options charming gardens and an oval reflecting pool on the east side and an unlimited grassy hill on the west. Just two blocks from the temple is the historic Logan Tabernacle, positioned on terribly traveled Highway ninety one. The legality of cannabis varies extensively throughout the United States, nevertheless in states the place medical cannabis is allowed, hashish dispensaries often double as head shops. We have researched and compiled a listing of smoke retailers on the town so yow will uncover the proper store for you.
Moore had been discovering out how fireplace impacts ice nucleating microbes within the air—the identical kinds of microbes that had prompted Kobziar to look into smoke. It was a second of astonishment when she discovered that Kobziar and her co-employees had printed on the equivalent subject. Still, in December, Kobziar and George Thompson revealed a Perspective in Science, calling out wildfire smoke as a possible infectious agent. There can be Rhode Island Division Of Taxation -well-known Zion National Park, where you’ll see steep pink cliffs, a plethora of wildlife, waterfalls, and extra.
This micro organism is an ice nucleator, which signifies that it has proteins in its cell partitions that assist ice to sort at higher temperatures. We know that extended publicity to smoke isn’t good in your nicely being, and is expounded to menace of asthma, strokes, respiratory an infection, and more. Moore had been finding out how fireside impacts ice nucleating microbes in the air—the same types of microbes that had prompted Kobziar to look into smoke. Thompson, an infectious sickness doctor on the University of California, Davis, acknowledged he’s seen that with the rising variety of wildfires, there are more circumstances of valley fever, or coccidioidomycosis, in firefighters. Before moving into the smokeshop enterprise, I was a territory manager for Brown & Williamson Tobacco.
Before the race, I had walked the course and visualized my line, so I do my best to easily and shortly roll my edges in order that I don’t resist the speed of the horse as I am pulled down the track. I anticipate the approaching jumps, which, as soon as I’m having a fast run, typically launch me up to now that I land on the flats past the transition that the Jackson and Pinedale course builders were thoughtful enough to add. All the whereas, I am doing my finest to spear my arm by way of the shoulder-high rings hanging on the apex of essentially the most troublesome turns. The 2019 American household comedy movie Playing with Fire follows a bunch of smokejumpers who should watch over three kids who’ve been separated from their mom and father following an accident.
- In response to outcry and requests for clarification from quite a number of officers, a brand new memo was issued by Deputy Attorney General James M. Cole in June 2011.
- Author Nora Roberts’s 2011 novel Chasing Fire additionally particulars the lives and loves of a bunch of smokejumpers.
- The constructing fell out of use inside the 1910s due to the proliferation of vehicles and was bought.
- Americans for Safe Access is the main advocacy group within the U.S. devoted to medical cannabis coverage reform.
Considering that and completely different pandemic challenges, supporters aren’t positive they’re going to be operating this summer time season. Prices and availability of services and products are topic to change without notice. The discovery has implications on the ecosystems the place the microbes finally land and the humans uncovered to smoke.
The legality of CBD products moreover varies by state, and in some jurisdictions prohibition just isn’t strictly enforced. A new study this month discovered that wildfire smoke accounted for about half of the air air air pollution in the western U.S. in the course of the worst wildfire years.
Lightly flour work floor and divide dough into 12 objects roughly the dimensions of tennis balls, then flatten into discs. About 500 coaching jumps had been made by the first 70 CPS smokejumpers in 1943, who went on to struggle 31 fires that first season. Their quantity elevated to a hundred and ten in 1944, and to 220 in 1945, as additional tools turned out there from the War Department. Next, coat the underside of a 9 x eleven baking pan with a skinny layer of spaghetti sauce and place steaks on the underside, then, add one different layer of sauce over the breaded steaks.
Individuals who have been notably lively in opposing the medical use of cannabis embody Barry McCaffrey, John Walters, Andrea Barthwell, Bill Montgomery, Mark Souder, Sheldon Adelson, Mel Sembler, and Kevin Sabet. The American Academy of Pediatrics and American Psychiatric Association oppose the legalization of medical hashish exterior the FDA approval course of. However, the AAP moreover supports rescheduling for the goal of facilitating research. Dr. Sanjay Gupta, neurosurgeon and chief medical correspondent for CNN, has produced a 5-half documentary sequence for the network – titled Weed – arguing in favor of the medical benefits of hashish. Gupta was initially dismissive in direction of the medical use of cannabis, however upon researching further he modified his ideas and wrote a column apologizing for his earlier views.
Syndros is a liquid oral formulation of dronabinol accredited for remedy of nausea and vomiting related to chemotherapy and weight reduction related to AIDS. Syndros obtained FDA approval in July 2016 and was assigned a Schedule II classification by the DEA in March 2017. The lab seems at between two and thirteen markers that indicate potential smoke publicity, like volatile and sugar-sure compounds. While folks see smoke and concern about its potential influence, smoke’s seen presence and even the Air Quality Index often are not basically reliable indicators of its impression on wine grapes. The outcomes of smoke on wine grapes can range from what’s known as affect or influence, which can be relatively minor. These grapes can nonetheless be used to produce wine, albeit perhaps with some corrective measures. The scale goes all the way in which up to smoke taint, the place the wine is considered faulted.
Syndros acquired FDA approval in July 2016 and was assigned a Schedule II classification by the DEA in March 2017. The lab appears at between two and thirteen markers that indicate potential smoke publicity, like dangerous and sugar-sure compounds. While folks see smoke and fear about its potential impact, smoke’s visual presence and even the Air Quality Index aren’t primarily reliable indicators of its affect on wine grapes. The effects of smoke on wine grapes can range from what’s referred to as affect or influence, which could possibly be comparatively minor. These grapes can nonetheless be used to provide wine, albeit maybe with some corrective measures. The scale goes all one of the simplest ways as much as smoke taint, the place the wine is taken under consideration faulted. The FDA has thus not accredited CBD for another medical use; nonetheless, the 2018 farm invoice legalized CBD extracted from hemp (less than zero.three% THC) at the federal degree.
The ruling was upheld by Leonhart in an August 2011 willpower, however, and as soon as more by the First Circuit Court of Appeals in April 2013. The monopoly has been maintained by the refusal of the Drug Enforcement Administration to problem dankstop clear glass female bowl additional licenses for the cultivation and distribution of cannabis, which the DEA has claimed is consistent with the terms of the U.N.
In July 2002, the original utility was returned to Professor Craker unprocessed, with a date stamp exhibiting it had been obtained in June 2001. Since enactment of the Controlled Substances Act, there have been numerous efforts looking for to place hashish in a a lot less restrictive class, but none have succeeded. There are additionally larger instances of respiratory an infection associated to smoke publicity, though any connection to microbes in smoke simply isn’t confirmed. While the fires have been distant from his winery, testing confirmed ranges of smoke marker compounds in Kirk’s grapes 10 cases the quantity that the majority people would discover and uncover objectionable. Once potentially smoke-impacted grapes are harvested and dropped at the winery, diversified winemaking strategies can both limit or exacerbate any attainable results.
The memo was prompted specifically by the most recent legalization of non-medical cannabis in Washington and Colorado, but in addition addressed enforcement in medical hashish states. In addition to FDA approval and DEA registration, different requirements have been imposed for hashish analysis that don’t exist for some other drug, which has had a significant impression in limiting the amount of analysis performed. One such requirement was established in 1999 when it was mandated that each one proposed analysis be submitted to the U.S. In June 2015 the PHS consider was eradicated, nonetheless, to raised streamline the strategy for approving medical hashish research. Nineteen states have legalized by pollmeasure and sixteen have by state legislature, for a complete of 35 states in accordance with the National Conference of State Legislatures. The U.S. territories of Guam (2014 – pollmeasure), Puerto Rico (2015 – govt order), the Northern Mariana Islands (2018 – legislature), and the U.S.
Now in our household’s fourth generation, B-21 stays to be about prime quality wines, aggressive vaporizer accessories costs and distinctive customer support. We know wine by vineyard, not just by guide and have been touring, tasting and loving wine since 1948. As the skier, after ronin glass bunei double disc perc bong I skate into the beginning gate, sans ski poles and adrenaline building, I’ve obtained to be ready because of the horse is the one who decides when it’s time to go.
All but two of the sufferers have since died; the surviving two victims are the one individuals who at current obtain cannabis by way of this system. There could be no timeline throughout which NIDA is required to reply proposals , which has resulted in delays in getting evaluation accredited starting from months to years.
Stripped of their native forests and starved of seasonal flooding, the banks of the Colorado have been overgrown with non-native vegetation and sometimes occupied by transients. In these days, the whole quantity of water that now sustains life in seven western states and two worldwide places ran by Yuma’s doorstep – and sometimes ran wild. Standing on the banks of the Colorado River in Yuma proper now, it’s hard to think about dankstop 4 arm tree perc beaker with subtle downstem the river in its unique, untamed state. Yet, throughout the days earlier than dams had been constructed up and down its length, the waters of the Colorado formed the geography – and historic previous – of the whole Southwest. Alphonso Anderson had thirteen elements for Utah State (14-5, eleven-2 Mountain West Conference).
Before the race, I had walked the course and visualized my line, so I do my finest to easily and quickly roll my edges so that I don’t resist the pace of the horse as I am pulled down the observe. I anticipate the approaching jumps, which, after I’m having a quick run, generally launch me thus far that I land on the flats past the transition that the Jackson and Pinedale course builders have been considerate sufficient to add.
A new research this month found that wildfire smoke accounted for about half of the air air air air pollution in the western U.S. in the midst of the worst wildfire years. Supreme Court ruling, Miller v. California, that discovered that native communities could determine their very personal First Amendment standards nearly about obscenity. In the mid-Seventies, sale of drug paraphernalia was outlawed in a lot of places, and the distribution network for underground comics and newspapers dried up. In addition, the retail mainstream discovered and co-opted features of the head shop’s market space of curiosity, very similar to acid rock and eco-pleasant merchandise. Moab, UtahMoab is the one small metropolis in Utah the place you’ll be capable of go to two of the 5 nationwide parks inside the state’s borders – nevertheless it’s greater than just a home base. Whether you’ve a non-working fireside in any other case you need to avoid smoke, there are nonetheless loads of methods to delicate up your fireplace. Some head outlets moreover promote devices used for home cultivation of marijuana vegetation, similar to hydroponic equipment and lights and guidebooks on cultivation.
The Drug Enforcement Administration is granted authority underneath the CSA to change the classification of any drug, primarily based upon the recommendation of the Food and Drug Administration which evaluates all drugs for safety and efficacy. Previous efforts to petition the DEA for rescheduling have additionally been unsuccessful, spanning the years 1972–1994, 1995–2001, and 2002–2013. In 1994, Senate Bill 1364 was permitted by state legislators, to reclassify hashish as a Schedule II drug at the state stage.
Smoke Break Huka Outlet
The film stars John Cena, Keegan-Michael Key, John Leguizamo, Brianna Hildebrand, Dennis Haysbert, and Judy Greer. funnel style replacement bowl of theYuma Crossing National Heritage Area, which refocused attention on the town’s historic past and leveraged public funding to encourage non-public growth throughout the historic North End. In addition to performing the preliminary assault on wildfires, they might additionally provide management for prolonged attacks on wildland fires.
Kelly Vaughn Burge, 23, was also charged Thursday in third District Court with aggravated robbery, a significant-diploma felony, and obstructing justice, a second-degree felony. SALT LAKE CITY — A West Jordan man accused of deliberately working over an worker of a smoke store twice goes by way of a major-diploma felony tried murder cost. On Dec. 21, 2020, officers have been dispatched to Smokey’s Discount Cigarettes, at 1597 W. dankstop incycler bong w honeycomb perc COUNTY, Utah, Jan. 6, — A suspect who allegedly ran over a West Jordan smoke store worker has been arrested. WEST JORDAN — A man wanted for allegedly working over a smoke shop employee multiple occasions in West Jordan has been arrested.
The hearth with the best toll of smokejumper deaths was the Mann Gulch fireplace in 1949, which occurred north of Helena, Montana, on the Gates of the Mountains house along the Missouri River. This catastrophe instantly led to the institution of recent security necessities utilized by all wildland firefighters. 10mm feminine to 14mm male adapter described the incident in his book Young Men and Fire . Most smokejumpers of the interval weren’t career professionals, however seasonal employees lured by the prospect of incomes as a lot as $1,000 over a summer time season. Chop remaining onion, slice entire jalapenos into thirds and add with all different components.
Author Biograhy: Nataly Komova founded Chill Hempire after experiencing the first-hand results of CBD in helping her to relieve her skin condition. Nataly is now determined to spread the word about the benefits of CBD through blogging and taking part in events. In her spare time, Nataly enjoys early morning jogs, fitness, meditation, wine tasting, traveling and spending quality time with her friends. Nataly is also an avid vintage car collector and is currently working on her 1993 W124 Mercedes. Nataly is a contributing writer to many CBD magazines and blogs. She has been featured in prominent media outlets such as Cosmopolitan, Elle, Grazia, Women’s Health, The Guardian and others.